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World War One: July, 1916

l. French and British begin powerful offensive, known as the Battle of the Somme, which continues until November. This relieves the German pressure on Verdun but fails to break the German lines.

5. The French storm German second-line positions on the Somme, capturing Hem and Estrées.

14. The British, using cavalry for the first time since 1914, penetrate German second line north of the Somme on a 4-mile front.

17. The Russians repulse the Austrians southwest of Lutsk, taking 13,000 prisoners.

25. The British occupy Pozières captured from the Germans on the Somme front.

28. Captain Charles Fryatt is executed by the Germans at Bruges, following his conviction by court-martial of attempting to ram a German submarine on March 28, 1915.