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World War One: May, 1916
l5-June 18. Great Austrian offensive against Italians in the Trentino.
Austrian attack penetrates Italian front between the Adige and the Astico.
15. The British capture portions of the crest of Vimy Ridge.
20. The Russians join the British on the Tigris.
Sixty German batteries, northwest of Verdun, concentrate their fire on Le Mort Hornme. German infantry captures the French first-line positions.
22. The French, in front of Verdun, recapture Fort Douaumont.
24. The Germans again expel the French from Fort Douaumont.
29. Culmination of German attacks on Verdun positions west of the Meuse. Adding five fresh infantry divisions, the Germans gain Cumières, Caurettes Wood, and the summit of Le Mort Homme.
31-June 7. After an eight days' battle the Germans northeast of Verdun capture Fort Vaux, opening, with the capture of Fort Douaumont, a breach in the permanent fortifications of Verdun only 4-1/2 miles from the city.
31. Great naval engagement off the Danish coast, called the Battle of Jutland, or the battle of the Skager-rak. The British grand fleet under Admiral Jellicoe encountered the German high seas fleet under Admiral von Scheer off Jutland, about 200 miles from the German naval base at Wilhelmshaven and about 400 miles from the British base in the Orkney Islands. The action began when the scouting squadron of battle cruisers under Vice-admiral Sir David Beatty met the leading ships of the German column. At 3:48 P.M. the battle cruisers of each side became engaged at a range of 10-1/2 miles. The engagement continued with the advance squadrons of British battle cruisers attacking, regardless of losses, the entire German fleet of battleships and battle cruisers. At 6 P.M. the main division of the British fleet under Admiral Jellicoe came upon the scene and swept the German fleet off the battle area. In the obscuring haze and mist which increased as evening came on, fighting continued intermittently for about two hours. The battle developed into a retreat and a pursuit, the British cruisers and destroyers inflicting heavy losses upon the German ships during the night. A few days after this severe engagement the British announced their losses to the world. The Germans, on the contrary, concealed and denied theirs, and the Kaiser proclaimed a stupendous "victory" for the German navy. However, the morning following the conflict found the British fleet patrolling the entire battle area. The German high seas fleet never again attempted to dispute the control of the North sea. Its next close approach to the British fleet was on the occasion of its surrender to Admiral Beatty, Nov. 21, 1918.
The British lost the battle cruisers "Queen Mary" (27,000 tons), "Indefatigable" (18,750 tons), "Invincible" (17,250 tons); the armored cruisers "Defence" (14,600 tons), "Warrior" (13,660 tons), "Black Prince" (13,660 tons); two flotilla leaders and six destroyers, ranging from 935 to 1850 tons, together with about 5700 officers and men, including rear-admirals Hood and Arbuthnot.