Oken, or Oekenfuss, Lorenz, was born in 1779. He began to study natural science and medicine at Wurzburg, but afterwards went o Gottingen, where in 1802 he issued his Grundris der Naturphilosophie. His Lehrbuch der Naturphilosophie appeared in 1809-11. He had in the meanwhile been transferred to Jena and then to Munich, and had begun to edit Isis, a periodical which gave offence to the authorities. He fell into disfavour, and in 1832 sought refuge in Switzerland, was made professor at Zurich, and died there in 1851.