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World War One: January, 1916

8. Complete evacuation of Gallipoli by the British and French.

11. Russian armies under the Grand Duke Nicholas march through the mountain passes into Turkish Armenia.

13. Austrian forces occupy Cettinje, the capital of Montenegro, and rapidly complete the conquest of the country.

16. At the end of three weeks' fighting the Russians abandon their attempt to recapture Czernowitz, after suffering losses of about 60,000 men. Though a costly military failure, this demonstration in Bukowina prevented the central powers from persuading Rumania to join them, and, by forcing the transfer of Mackensen with 250,000 men to the Russian front, relieved the hard-pressed Allies in the Balkans.

19. King Nicholas of Montenegro, following the complete defeat of his armies, flees to Italy.

23. The Austrians occupy Seutari, Albania.

24. The seat of the Montenegrin government is transferred to Bordeaux, France.

25. The Albanian port of San Giovanni di Medua captured by Austrian forces from Montenegro.

29. German Zeppelin bombards Paris.