Zwingli, Ulrich (1484-1531), the Swiss reformer, was born at Wildhaus. After studying philosophy at Bern and Vienna, he repaired to Basel. In 1516 he retired to the solitary convent of Einsiedeln, whence he removed to Zurich at the opening of 1519 as preacher in the cathedral. He signalized his entry on his new office by his successful resistance to the sale of indulgences carried on by the traveling friar Samson. The Bishop of Constance endeavoured to awe him into silence, but a controversy at Zurich between Zwingli and his vicar-general, John Faber, resulted in the formal adhesion of the city to the principles of the Reformation (1523). In 1520 a war broke out between the Protestant and the Roman Catholic cantons. At Cappel, in 1531, the men of Zurich were routed, and Zwingli himself fell.