Valenciennes (Classic Valentianae), an ancient city in the Department of Nord, France, situated at the junction of the Scheldt and Ronelle, 32 miles S.E. of Lille. Founded in the Roman times, it became in the Middle Ages the capital of Hainault, and has stood many sieges. It is a first-class fortress, and the citadel planned by Vauban still exists. There is a fine town hall; and other public buildings, including churches, possess great interest. A considerable industry is carried on in linen fabrics, gauze, merinos, and the kind of lace named after the town.