Urban, a name borne by eight of the Popes, of whom the first suffered martyrdom. Urban II, by his action at the Council of Clermont (1095) was the prime mover in the establishment of the Crusades. Urban VI. caused great confusion in the church by his obstinate resistance to the cardinals, who deposed him in 1378, a schism being the result. Urban VIII. was probably the greatest of his name, a patron of art and literature, an excellent scholar and poet, and a strong upholder of the temporal power.