Note:  Do not rely on this information. It is very old.


Umber, a pigment which consists of a clay coloured by oxides of iron and manganese. The raw material is "burnt," by which means water is expelled, and the pigment takes a redder colour. It is then powdered, and may be used for the preparation of either water-colours or oil-colours. The best varieties are obtained chiefly from Cyprus, and from their colour and permanence are valuable pigments.

“In the same way, let your light shine before men, that they may see your good deeds and praise your Father in heaven.”
Matthew 5:16