Tyrone, HUGH O'NEILL, EARL OF, called "the arch-rebel," was in 1587 given the earldom and lands of the house of which he was an illegitimate member, in return for his services against Desmond. He soon, however, began to intrigue with Spain, and in 1587, calling himself "The O'Neil," headed a rising against the English. In the next year he defeated their commander, Bagenol, who was his wife's father, and the whole of Ireland rose. When Essex arrived with an army, however, O'Neill submitted; but in 1601 he joined the Spanish invaders, and was defeated and wounded. On his submission he was again reinstated in his earldom, but under James I. once more intrigued with Spain. In 1607 he fled to Rome, where he died in 1616.