Turin, a city of Northern Italy, formerly the capital of Piedmont., situated a little above the confluence of the Po and the Dora Riparia, 80 miles W.S.W. of Milan. The town, which has a very modern aspect, with broad, regular streets and well-built houses, stands in the midst of a rich and beautiful plain, surrounded by hills, beyond which rise the snow-clad Alps. The cathedral is a Renaissance edifice, rebuilt in 1498. Of the numerous palaces, the most interesting is, perhaps, the Palazzo Madama, built by William of Montferrat towards the close of the 13th century. The university, formed in 1400, is now attended by about 2,OOO students. The manufactures include silk, woollen, and cotton stuffs, carpets, and wax matches. Turin was capital of the kingdom of Sardinia prior to 1860, and of Italy from 1860 to 1865.