Times, THE, the leading newspaper of England, was founded by Mr. John Walter (1739-1812) in 1785 under the title of the London Daily Universal Register. From January 1, 1788, onwards it was called the Times, the old name being retained for a while as a sub-title. It did not meet with any remarkable success before the appointment of the second John Walter (1776-1847) as manager (1803). Owing to his energy in collecting recent and trustworthy news from all parts of the world, as well as the ability and independence of its criticism of the Government policy, the Times rose rapidly in public estimation. Its sale was greatly increased after the adoption of the Koenig steam printing-press in 1814. The leading position always maintained by the Times must in large measure be ascribed to its successive editors, Sir John Stoddart (1812-16) and Thomas Barnes (1816-41), who was ably seconded by the "Thunderer" Edward Sterling, John T. Delane (1841-79), and Thomas Chenery, who was succeeded in 1884 by Mr. G. E. Buckle. In 1847 Mr. John Walter (b. 1818, d. 1894), grandson of the founder, became proprietor. He was fortunate in his manager, Mr. Macdonald (1822-89), who, among other improvements, introduced the Walter press in 1869. The Times earned the gratitude of the commercial world by its exposure of the conspiracy hatched in Belgium to defraud the principal banking-houses of Europe (1841). The publication of a series of articles entitled "Parnellism and Crime" brought on a chain of events which hardly enhanced the journal's reputation, but its position is probably too secure to be seriously endangered.