Tiberius, CLAUDIUS NERO CAESAR (42 B.C.-37 A.D.), the second Roman Emperor, was the son of Tiberius Claudius Nero and Livia Drusilla. His mother subsequently marrying the future Emperor Augustus, he and his brother were reared in the household of their stepfather, and were given the usual training in public affairs. Their military capacity was shown by the defeat of the Rhaeti and Vindelici. In 13 B.C. Tiberius became consul, and again in 7 B.C., after having carried on a successful war with Germany. Having been forced by Augustus to divorce his wife, and to marry the infamous Julia, he withdrew in disgust to Rhodes, and did not return to public life till the year 4 A.D., when he was proclaimed as the adopted successor of Augustus. His triumphant victories at the same period in Germany and Dalmatia increased his popularity, and in the year 14 he became Emperor. He instituted various changes in the matter of election of public officers, and in other directions gradually increased the power of the monarchy, his severity in this respect causing much disquiet. Sejanus, commander of the Praetorian Guards, who had the chief direction of affairs, was more cruel than Tiberius, and carried out his instructions with ferocity, and finally Tiberius, excessively suspicious, caused him to be put to death. Retiring to Misenum, Tiberius gave himself up to debauchery, and, having fallen into a trance, was suffocated as he awoke. He was succeeded by Caligula. Tiberius was a great soldier, but a man of morbid and gloomy temperament; but we have to depend on very hostile witnesses for our knowledge of his rule.