Thiers, LOUIS ADOLPHE (1795-1877), French statesman and historian, was born of humble and poor parents at Marseilles, who gave him a good education, enabling him to study law. He became an advocate in 1819, and in 1821, with his friend Mignet, the historian, went to Paris to seek his fortune. After a struggle, he joined the press, and became known in political circles as a good writer and thinker. He published in 1827 his notable History of the French Revolution, which at once gave him an eminent rank as an author. In conjunction with others he founded the National in 1830, a successful newspaper, and, after the revolution and accession of Louis Philippe, he became a State Councillor and a member of the Chamber of Deputies. Between 1832-34 he held various posts in the Ministry, and in 1836, after a temporary retirement, he became its head for a short period. In the same year he was admitted to the Academy. In 1840 he was President of the Council and Minister for Foreign Affairs, and during this short tenure had difficulties with England and Germany. Withdrawing from public life, he occupied himself with his History of the Consulate and the Empire, which cost him years of labour, and was finally completed in 1860. He later on re-entered public life and again retired, and strongly donounced the Franco-German War of 1870. During the war he became head of the Provisional Government, and in August, 1871, was elected President of the French Repnblic, which post he held until 1873. His active and eventful life has been written several times, but his rank as a writer or as a statesman is not considered to be of the highest.