Themistocles (circa 514-149 B.C.), a celebrated Athenian general and statesman. After the ostracism of his rival Aristides (483) he became the foremost man at Athens, and directed his energies to the formation of a powerful fleet, thus laying the foundations of the city's naval supremacy. In the war against Persia the chief command was given to the Spartan Eurybiades, but it was the action of Themistocles in forqing an engagement which led to the naval victory over Xerxes at Salamis (481). When the Persians had been driven out he accomplished the fortification of the city in spite of Spartan opposition; but the unpatriotic faction ultimately prevailed, and in 471 he was ostracised. Expelled from Argos and Corcyra in turn he at last found a refuge at the court of Artaxerxes, King of Persia, over whom he acquired grerlt influence.