St. Gall, a canton of N.E. Switzerland, to the S. of the Lake of Constance; area, 780 square miles. It completely encircles the canton of Appenzell, and is separated by the Rhine on the E. from the Tyrol. The surface is hilly, in parts even mountainous. The embroidery of cottons and muslins forms the chief industry. The inhabitants speak German, and the Canton is mainly Roman Catholic, while the town is almost entirely Protestant. The capital, ST. GALL, is situated on the Steinach, at an altitude or 2,200 feet, about 7 miles S.W. of the Lake of Constance. It grew up between the 8th and the 10th centuries round the Benedictine monastery which marked the site of the hermitage of St. Gall, a disciple of St. Columban who established himself here in 614. During the Middle Ages the monks became famous for their learning, their love of music, and, above all, their zeal in collecting MSS. It is to their care alone that we are indebted for our knowledge of Quintilian and other classical anthors. The monastic library is still preserved in the ancient buildings, which have been converted into government offices and schools. The abbey church was restored in the last century, and there is a town library dating from 1536. The present canton was formed in 1803. St. Gall became the seat of a bishop in 1836.