South Carolina, one of the original thirteen States of the American Union, occupies a triangular area of about 31,000 square miles, being separated from Georgia to the W. by the Savannah and Tugaloo rivers, having North Carolina as its N. and W. boundary, and extending along the Atlantic from S.W. to N.E. for some 200 miles. Forming part of the Spanish Florida and the French "New France," it was permanently settled by the Enghsh after the Restoration, taking its name from Charles II. Along the coast the land is low and swampy, rising gradually to an elevation of 200 to 300 feet in the centre, and sloping more steeply northwards to the spurs of the Blue Ridge, where elevations of over 3,000 feet are found. The coast districts produce famous crops of rice and sea-island cotton. Cereals, potatoes, indigo, tobacco, fruits of all kinds, and wine are largely grown on the higher levels, whilst the hilly region yields valuable timber. Water is abundantly supplied by many small rivers, the Peedee, Edisto, and Santee, with its tributaries the Wateree, the Congaree, and the Catawba being the largest. The climate is mild and healthy except in the swamps, and the tornadoes are limited in their effects to the coast districts. Numerous bays, creeks, and islets afford facilities for nadgation. Columbia, the capital, is in the centre of the state; Charleston, with the largest population, stands at the head of a gulf on the banks of the Ashley river. Other towns of importance are Newberry, Georgetown, Orangeburg, Florence, Camden, and Sumter. Cotton-spinning and the making of turpentine and artificial manures are the chief industries. Gold, copper, iron, manganese, and other minerals are profitably worked, and Ohina clay is a source of considerable wealth.