Shield, an article of personal defence or armour which was used from very ancient times. The clypeus of classic times was made of metal, and was round in shape; the scutum was oblong, and generally of wood covered with skin, and was often convex; the parma was of skin; and the pella crescent-shaped. The Norman shield was triangular, becoming at a later period heart-shaped. The Bayeux Tapestry and brasses of different dates show us the modifications of the mediaeval shield. The introduction of fire-arms did away with the necessity for its use in warfare, and new methods of fencing rendered it obsolete in personal combat. The Highlander retained his targe till a late period. The Zulu warrior uses a shield of hide which is impervious to the assegai.