Sherman, WILLIAM TECUMSEH (1820-91), American general, was born in Lancaster, Ohio. On the outbreak of the Civil War he entered the Northern Army, and distinguished himself under Grant at Shiloh (April, 1862) and Chattanooga (November, 1863). Appointed to the command of the south-western division in March, 1864, he proceeded to operate against General J. E. Johnston, the chief point of his attack being Atlanta in Georgia. As long as Johnston remained in command he was baffled by his skill in manoeuvring, but when he was superseded by Hood a series of battles ensued, in which the Confederates were invariably beaten, and in September Atlanta surrendered. On November 16th he set out on his famous march to the sea, which occupied 28 days and was followed by the fall of Savannah. In the early months of 1865 Sherman gained numerous successes in the Carolinas, and on April 26 the Confederate army under Johnston surrendered at Durham Station. When Grant became President he was appointed General and Commander-in-Chief (1869), but in 1874 he retired at his own request.