Note:  Do not rely on this information. It is very old.


Shamyl (d. 1871), a Circassian chieftain, born in Daghestan, who became the spiritual and temporal leader of his countrymen in their long resistance to Russian aggression. After more than one extraordinary escape, he was captured in 1859, and from that time to 1870 lived at Kaluga, in Russia. The year before his death he removed to Mecca, in Arabia.