Salmasius (1588-1653), a great French scholar, whose real name was CLAUDE SAUMAISE, was the son of a learned writer, and was born at Saumur. He wrote Greek and Latin verse at an early age, was devoted to study, and, without a master, taught himself Arabic, Hebrew, and other languages. He succeeded Scaliger as professor of history at Leyden, and was a friend of Casaubon, Grotius, and others. After completing his education at Paris and Heidelberg, he became a Protestant. He published in 1649 his defence of Charles I. of England, and was replied to by Milton, who in his Defence of the People of England entirely demolished the case of Salmasius. The latter replied, but his reply was not published till after his death. In 1650 he went to Sweden at the invitation of Queen Christina, who, however, neglected him after Milton's crushing rejoinder, and he is said to have died of disappointment. He was greatly admired as a scholar by his contemporaries, and Richelieu desired to keep him in France that he might write the history of his administration, but he told the Cardinal that his pen was not a venal one. His works number about fifty.