Salamanca, a walled Spanish city of mediaeval aspect, situated on hills overlooking the Tormes, 110 miles W.N.W. of Madrid. The University, one of the most renowned among mediaeval places of learning, was founded in 1243, and continued to flourish till the latter part of the 17th century. In the 15th century its 25 colleges contained some 10,000 students. The buildings are, for the most part, in a late style of Gothic architecture. There are two cathedrals, the more ancient of which is a Romanesque structure of the 12th century. The Jesuit College was erected in 1614. Salamanca has a library containing upwards of 70,000 volumes, besides MSS. The great square, which is surrounded by colonnades, and was used as a bull-ring, is said to be the largest in Spain. The leather industry has declined, and the linen, and earthenware manufactures are not very extensive. Near here Wellington defeated Marmont in 1812.