Royal Society, The, had its origin in a club of learned men, formed in 1645, and meeting first in London, then at Oxford, and then again in London. In 1658 they used to meet at Gresham College, where lectures were delivered, and in 1662 they were incorporated as the President, Council, and Fellows of the Royal Society founded for improving the knowledge of Natural Science. In 1665 the Society first began to publish its Philosophical Transactions, and from 1703 to 1727 Sir Isaac Newton was its President. It removed to Burlington House in 1857, and has done much service as scientific adviser to the Government. Research is encouraged by the award of medals and prizes.