Rio de Janeiro, the capital of Brazil and the largest city of South America, is to the west of the bay of that name on the east coast of Brazil, and presents a beautiful aspect from the sea, one of the first objects seen being the Sugar Loaf, which rises direct from the water to the height of 1,000 feet. To the north the bay, studded with islands, narrows to one mile in width. Beyond this, on the west, is the city, built partly on an island and partly on the mainland, and well-protected by forts. The old part of the town is on flat land, but a newer part is on the slopes of the hills which rise above the town and are interspersed with valleys. To the north well-timbered and cultivated ground rises to the Organ Mountains. The houses are of granite, with upper storeys of wood, and tiled roofs. The streets are for the most part paved, and have raised side-walks. The Campo de Sta. Anna is on the west, and beyond that, and joined by a bridge crossing an arm of the sea, is the new town. There is a Senate House, a town-hall, and some good churches and convents, the Imperial College, Library, Botanical Gardens, etc. One of the finest features of the town is the aqueduct, which, supported on a double row of 42 fine arches, brings water to the town from Mount Corcovado in the south-east. The noble roadstead - deep, extensive, and well-sheltered - is one of the finest in the world, but the wharf accommodation is poor. There are no important manufactures, but the export and import trade is large, the former consisting of coffee and other produce from the interior. Rio was settled by French Protestants in 1555, but in 1567 the Portuguese obtained it and founded a city which they called St. Sebastian. Until 1808 Bahia was the capital of the country.