Richard I. (1157-99), the crusader, surnamed Coeur de Lion, succeeded his father, Henry II., in 1189. In the following year he started on a crusade which he had been meditating for some time. He joined his forces with those of Philip Augustus of France, and the combined numbers amounted to 100,000. The two kings quarrelled in Sicily, and the reconciliation was only effected by Richard paying a large tribute. Journeying by different routes, Richard entered Cyprus, which he captured and handed over to Guy de Lusignan, and there married the Princess Berengaria of Navarre. Acre was taken by the joint forces, and shortly after Philip returned to France, leaving 10,000 of his men with Richard, who performed prodigies of valour, and totally defeated Saladin at Caesarea. On his return home he was shipwrecked and was for a long time imprisoned by Henry VI., who demanded and received an enormous ransom from England. Richard arrived home in 1194, and very shortly after made war on France, in consequence of a breach of an agreement by Philip. He was mortally wounded by Bertrand de Gourdon, at the siege of Chalus, in revenge for cruelties to the family of De Gourdon, and though he ordered Bertrand's release, the latter was put to death in an atrocious manner. Richard bequeathed his heart to Rouen, where it still is. He was of a sanguinary disposition, but of remarkable valour. Of his ten years' reign not more than six months was spent in England.