Note:  Do not rely on this information. It is very old.


Rhine, The (German, Rhein), one of the most important rivers of Europe, receives over 1,200 tributaries, rises in the Grisons, and has three main sources, the Voider-, Hinter-, and Mittel-Rhein. The Vorder comes from three sources, rising to the northeast of St. Gothard, the Mittel from Lake Skur in Dimthal, and the Hinter from the Rheinwald Glacier, flowing 70 miles through Rheinwaldthal. The Mittel-Rhein joins the Vorder-Rhein at Dissentis, and the Vorder-Rhein, flowing east, joins the Hinter-Rhein at Reichenau. from which point it becomes the Rhine Proper, being about 140 feet wide and capable of conveying floats, and becoming navigable at Chur, where it receives the Plessur. From tins point it flows north, leaves the Grisons, receives the 111, and helps to form the Bodensee and L'ntersee; then flowing west it separates Switzerland from the Grand Duchy of Baden, and flows on to Schaffhausen and Basel, receiving in its course the Goldach, Thur, Thoss, Glatt, and Aar on the left, and some tributaries from the Schwarzwald on the right. At Basel it turns north and separates Alsace from Baden, Baden from Rhenish Bavaria; then through the Grand Duchy of Hesse, which it separates from Nassau; then separates Nassau from Rhenish Prussia; then enters Rhenish Prussia, receiving many rivers, among them being the Neckar, Wiese, Main, Lahn, and Moselle, and passing the towns of Strasburg, Mannheim, Worms, Mainz, Bingen, Bonn, Cologne, Diisseldorf. Below Emmerich it enters Gelderland (Holland), and divides into North and South, the south branch, called the Waal, joining the Maas, while the north, called the Rijn, flows to Arnhem, dividing into right and left branches, the right forming the old and new Yssel, and flowing into the Zuyder Zee, while the left, still called the Rijn, dwindles and flows into a canal. The river is 750 ft. wide at Basel, increasing to 2,150 ft. at its entry into Holland, while the depth varies from 5 ft. to 50 ft. From the Bodensee to Schaffhausen the river is navigable by steamers, thence to Basel the course is rocky, and in the lower part the river is studded with islands, some of which are cultivated and others covered with timber. Among its fish are salmon, trout, sturgeon, pike, carp, lampreys, and the islands abound in wild-fowl. The navigation of the Rhine is important; loaded vessels ascend to Spires. There are several rapids, and in parts the river flows through narrow gorges. From Basel to Mainz wide side-valleys open towards the Vosges on the left and the Black Forest on the right, while at Bingen mountain ridges descend to the left bank. The towns, villages, tower-crowned heights, vineyards, and side-valleys make the Rhine a favourite resort of tourists.