Ramus, Peter, otherwise Pierre de la Ramke (1515-72), French philosopher, was in his youth a servant at the College of Navarre, and, being of a studious turn, managed to accumulate much learning, and eventually became a notable scholar. He wrote voluminously, and in 1543 published a work against Aristotle's teachings which caused a sensation. It was suppressed, and its author prevented from teaching, but Henri II. restored him to his profession, and named him royal professor of rhetoric and philosophy. He wrote a great number of books, and his knowledge of languages was very great. He became a Protestant, however, and was twice obliged to leave Paris, and in 1572 was one of the victims of the massacre of St. Bartholomew. He was the best mathematician of his time in France, and translated Euclid. He was also an excellent orator and grammarian, and wrote various grammatical treatises. He it was who caused the introduction of the letters j and v into the European languages in place of the ancient i and u.