Portsmouth. 1. The chief naval arsenal of England, is a seaport and municipal borough at the extremity of Portsea Island, Hampshire, at a distance of seventy-four miles by L. & S.W. Railway from the metropolis. A narrow channel separates it from Gosport and Haslar to the west, and opens out into the harbour, which extends for nine miles inland. Connected with Portsmouth proper are Portsea to the north, Landport to the north-east, and Southsea to the east. The largest vessels can enter the port at any state of the tide, and there is ample accommodation for the whole British fleet. To the south lies the roadstead of Spithead, protected by the Isle of Wight. The docks cover 290 acres, and have every requisite for building, fitting, and repairing ironclads of the largest size. The town received its first charter from Richard I., and became a naval station of importance in the 13th century, but its present development can be traced back only to 1544. In addition to handsome modern public buildings, there are the church of St. Thomas (12th century), and parts of St. Nicholas' Hospital (13th century), now the garrison chapel.
2. A city and port of Rockingham county, New Hampshire, United States, America, lies at the mouth of the Piscataqua, 57 miles north-east of Boston. It was first settled in 1623, and is in much repute as a summer resort. Though the harbour is excellent, there is little trade, and the United States navy yard is on the other side of the river in the state of Maine. It shares with Concord the rank of sessions town for New Hampshire.
3. The capital of Scioto county, Ohio, United States, America, is a rising city, owing to its position at the southern terminus of the Ohio and Erie Canal, and its connection by rail with the mineral and agricultural regions of the states of Ohio and Kentucky. It has iron-smelting works, foundries, rolling-mills, saw-mills, etc., and, though founded only in 1803, has had a charter since 1814.
4. The capital of Norfolk county, Virginia, United States, America, is one of the best harbours on the Atlantic coast, being situated on the W. bank of Elizabeth river, opposite Norfolk. The Gosport navy yard, with its large dry dock and hospital, is established here. There is a considerable export trade in cotton, timber, pig-iron, and agricultural produce.