Portcullis, an instrument of mediaeval fortification, was used to defend the door of a castle, town, or other fastness, against battery from without. In form it somewhat resembled a harrow, and the bottom was provided with spikes. When out of use it rested in a space over the door, and for use it slid down vertical grooves which guided the framework on each side of the doorway.
Port Elizabeth, a seaport and provincial capital of Cape Colony, stands upon the steep coast of Algoa Bay near the mouth of the Zwartkop river. Founded in 1820, it rose to considerable prosperity as the chief emporium of trade with the east coast, and the development of railways added to its importance, though latterly some of the traffic has been diverted to Cape Town by the opening up of other railway systems. Wool, ostrich feathers, ivory, and diamonds are the staple exports.