Pombal, Marquis de (Don Sebastiano Jose de Caevalho), a great Portuguese statesman, was born in Coimbra in 1699. After trying the law and the army, he.went to Lisbon, and was well received at court. In 1739 he became ambassador to England, being recalled in 1745, and in 1750 was made foreign secretary. The great earthquake of 1755 roused his energy, and he did wonders for the country, making a clean sweep of many abuses. His severity was tempered by judicious concessions, and he carried out a good system of national education, and did much for native industries. He was the confidant of Joseph I., who created him Marquis; after the king's death his enemies forced his removal, and he died on his property in 1782.