Piedmont, an Italian department S. of Switzerland, W. of Lombardy, and E. of France, is at the foot of the Alps, having the Lepontine and Pennine Alps to the N. and N.W., the Graian and Cottian on the W., the Maritime Alps and the Apennines to the S. There is a gradual descent from the mountains to the valley of the Po, and the district is wonderfully fertile. The Po receives many tributaries, including the Mairia, Tanaro, Scrivia, Ticino and others, and these are much used for the purpose of irrigation. Wheat, maize, rice, beans, hemp, hay are largely cultivated, and the province produces wine, cattle, and millions of silkworms, silk being exported to the value of £100,000 a year. Iron, lead, copper, and marble are worked; and there are manufactures of silk, woollens, cotton, and flax. Grain, cotton, silks, hides, flax, wine, and wool are exported. Turin is the capital, and was from 1860 to 1865 the capital of the new kingdom of Italy. The Waldensian Church still exists in the mountainous districts.