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Philip IIKingof Macedonia

Philip II., King of Macedonia (382-36 B.C.), was the son of Amyntas II. He was educated at Thebes. On the death of his brother Perdiccas III. he became guardian to his nephew Amyntas, but he soon afterwards established himself as king (360 B.C.). After securing peace within his borders and bringing his army to a high state of efficiency, he set to work to enlarge his dominions. His projects were too vast to be accomplished in a lifetime; yet his tact, his dogged resolution, and his utter unscrupulousness as to the means he employed enabled him to advance a long way in their realisation. After subduing the Greek towns on the shores of the AEgean, he advanced through Thessaly as far as Thermopylae; but, finding the pass well defended by the Athenians, he was compelled to retrace his steps (352). He now engaged in a war with Thrace, and in 347 completed his conquest of Chalkidike' by taking the town of Olynthus. An appeal from the Thebans for aid against the Phocians, their adversaries in the Sacred War, gave him the opportunity of interfering in the affairs of Hellas (346). The Phocians were conquered by a Macedonian army, and during the ensuing years Philip made such good use of the position he had thus gained that in 338 he was made commander of the forces of the Amphictyonic Council. In this capacity lie set out for Greece in order to make war on the Locrians of Amphissa. The Athenians, perceiving too late the danger which threatened themselves and their neighbours, united with the Thebans to resist his progress, but their forces were completely routed at the battle of Chseronea (338 B.C.). Master of all Greece, Philip now directed his thoughts to the other side of the AEgean. He was about to start on an expedition against Persia, when he was assassinated at the marriage of his daughter with Alexander of Epirus.