Pestalozzi, Johann Heinrich (1746-1827), the celebrated educationalist, was born at Zurich. After abandoning theology and jurisprudence in turn, he conceived the project of establishing himself in a country house in which be might receive and educate a few destitute children (1775). His farm at Neuhof near Lenzburg having failed, owing to his want of business capacity (1780), he betook himself to writing, and in 1787 published Lienhardt and Gertrude, in which are set forth his views concerning the moral reform of the poor. His school for deserted children established at Stanz in 1798, under the auspices of the Swiss Directory, had to be abandoned before it had lasted a year, mainly in consequence of the war. He afterwards became the master of an experimental school at Burgdorf, which he removed to Yverdun in 1804. Pestalozzi-owed much to Rousseau, and may be regarded as the forerunner of Froebel (q.v.). He laid great stress on the value of observation as a factor in education; the pupil must be induced to exercise his natural powers of gaining an "intuitive" knowledge through the senses.