Parma, the capital of a small province of northern Italy, is situated on a river of the same name nearly midway between Bologna and Milan, on the old Via AEmilia. It was formerly the chief town of a duchy which lay between the Milanese and Modena. Parma and Piacenza, with the surrounding territory, passed from the Pope to the Farnese family, and from them to the Spanish Bourbons, who (with.a short interval) held it (with Guastalla) till, in. 1796, it was occupied by the French. From 1814 till 1847 the duchy belonged to Maria Louisa, wife of Napoleon. In the interval before its incorporation, in 1860, with the kingdom of Italy it was ruled by the Duke of Lucca. The city of Parma, is noted for its art treasures. The ducal palace has a fine gallery of Corregios, and there are frescoes by this artist in the 11th-century cathedral and the church of St. John. The church of Madonna della Steccata contains the tombs of the Farnese. Parma has a university, and is notable for its Baptistry and the ducal library. The place was twice besieged by the Emperor Frederick II. Pianofortes are made here, and there is a flourishing trade in cattle, corn, and silk.