Palaeotherium, a genus of extinct ungulate mammals, the type of a family, Palaeotheriidae, which combines the characters of the rhinoceros, tapir, and horse. The species range in size from that of a pig to that of a horse, four or five feet high. They had a short, fleshy snout, like the tapir (q.v.), but had only three toes on each foot. The range in time of the genus is from the Middle Eocene to the Upper Oligocene, the earliest types being described by Cuvier from the gypsum beds of Montmartre.