Orfila, Matthieu. Joseph Bonaventuee (1787-1853), author of the Traite de Toxicologic Generate (1813). was born in Minorca. He took the degree of M.D. at Paris, where he gave famous lectures on chemistry, botany, and other subjects. In 1819 he became a French citizen, and in 1823 exchanged the chair of jurisprudence for that of chemistry. He was deprived of the post of dean' of the medical faculty in 1848 owing to his moderate opinions.