Oldenburg, a German grand-duchy, and its capital. The former has an area of 2,480 square miles, and comprises the three detached territories of the duchy of Oldenburg, the principality of Liibeck, and the principality of Birkenfeld. Oldenburg proper makes up about seven-eighths of the whole, and is bounded by the German Ocean to the N., and by Hanover on all other sides, except where it touches Bremen on the E. The alluvial coast district, protected from the sea by dykes, is fertile but swampy, producing good crops of cereals and rape, whilst inland are vast tracts of heather. Sheep, horses, and cattle are reared in abundance, and the rivers, canals, and railways afford excellent facilities for trade. Oldenburg, the capital, stands on the river Hunte, about 25 miles N.W. of Bremen, The town hall and ducal palace are in the Renaissance style, and the latter contains a fine picture gallery and library. There are few industries, but a large trade is carried on in grain and horses.