Odessa, a port of Russia, at the N.W. corner of the Black Sea, and the fourth city of the empire, stands on the S. shore of a fine, but exposed bay, the shipping finding shelter in three harbours. The existing town dates only from 1791, when Russia definitely took over the place, and to the Duc de Richelieu, an early governor, much of its advancement is due. It is now the capital of Novorossia, has a fine cathedral (1849), a palace and public park, and an excellent university. The climate, owing to the surrounding lagoons, is unhealthy. The exports are flour, wheat, cattle, hides, tallow, and hemp, whilst colonial products and manufactured goods are largely imported.