Novgorod, a government of north-west Russia, between lat. 57° and 61° N. and long. 30° and 40° E.; area 47,236 square miles. There are many lakes, marshes, and large forests. The capital Novgorod (" New Town"), situated at the point where the Volkov flows from Lake Ilmen, is one of the most ancient cities in Russia. It was at the invitation of its inhabitants that Rurik (q.v.) crossed the Baltic about 862. It formed a connection with the Hanseatic League, and became a wealthy republic, till its prosperity aroused the envy of Ivan III., who almost completely destroyed it in 1471. It has now little trade. Among its ancient buildings the most important is the church of St." Sophia, built in imitation of that at Constantinople.