Nova Scotia, a province of the Dominion of Canada, between lat. 43° 25' and 47° N. and long. 59° 40' and 66° 25' W., comprising the peninsula of Nova Scotia and the island of Cape Breton, which is separated from its N.E. coast by the narrow strait of Canso; total area 20,907 square miles. The peninsula is 250 miles long from N.E. to S.W., with an extreme breadth of 100 miles, and is connected with New Brunswick at its N.W. extremity by an isthmus about 16 miles in width.
The other boundaries of the peninsula are Northumberland Strait, which separates it from Prince Edward Island, on the N, the Bay of Fundy on the W., the strait or "gut" of Canso on the N.E., and the Atlantic on the E. and S. The lakes, with the rivers flowing from them, which seldom exceed 50 miles in length, extend over about 3,000 square miles. The largest, Lake Rossignol, in the S. part of the peninsula, is over 20 miles long. Great Bras d'Or Lake (500 square miles) in Cape Breton is a lake only in name, since it communicates with the sea through Little Bras d'Or Lake. There are several ranges of lofty hills, which for the most part run parallel with the coast; the highest points (1,100 to 1,200 feet) are in the Cobequid" Mountains, near the New Brunswick border on the N. side of Minas Basin, an arm of the Bay of Fundy. The coast is much indented, especially on the S.E., where there are many fine harbours, such as that of Halifax, and Mahone and Margaret's bays. A vast collection of small islands runs along the whole of the Atlantic seaboard. Sable Island, a long narrow stretch of sand at the S. extremity, has been the scene of many shipwrecks. The climate is, on the whole, temperate, and the province is remarkably fertile, the best soil beiug that of the broad valleys between the hill ranges. There is also a rich tract along the shores of Minas Basin due to the marine deposits which remain after the "bore," when the tide sometimes rises 50 or 60 feet. Hay is the principal crop, and garden fruits, especially apples, are extensively cultivated. In the valley of the Annapolis orchards extend along the roadsides for over 50 miles. At the Government Agricultural College near Truro an education in farming and household management is given to members of both sexes. There are extensive coalfields in Cape Breton and the N. part of the peninsula, and gold and iron are also worked. The fisheries are second only to those of Newfoundland. Manufacturing industries have advanced considerably of late years. The length of the railways is 700 miles. The provincial government is administered by a Lieutenant-Governor, assisted by an Executive Council of nine members. There are a Legislative Assembly of 38 members elected at intervals of four years, and a Legislative Council of 17 members. The province sends 10 senators to the Upper and 21 members to the Lower House of the Dominion Parliament. Nova Scotia was discovered by the. Cabots 1497. New Brunswick was separated from Nova Scotia 1784; Cape Breton also formed a separate colony from that date to 1819.