Monmouth James Dukeof
Monmouth, James, Duke of (1649-85), the son of Lucy Walters and (as is supposed) Charles II., was born at Rotterdam and educated in France at the charge of the king. After the Restoration he was called to England, and was made K.G., Earl of Orkney and Duke of Monmouth. At sixteen he married Anne,'daughter of the Duke of Buccleuch, and he became popular in the country in proportion as the Duke of York was disliked and hated. He is described by Hume as brave, affable, thoughtlessly generous, and graceful in person; but his nature was weak, and he would not have been politically dangerous but for the influence and talent of his adviser, Shaftesbury. In 1679 he commanded at Bothwell Brigg, but was deprived of his command and sent from the kingdom to please the Duke of York. On being allowed to return to England he plotted with Shaftesbury and others ; but the plot was discovered in 1683, and Monmouth, after being in hiding for a time, was pardoned on promising amendment. He afterwards denied having made promises, and was again sent abroad. On the accession of James II. he embarked on his romantic but foolhardy expedition to invade England, an attempt which cost him his life, and brought much disaster on the west of England. In June, 1685, he landed at Lyme with 100 followers, and assumed the title of James II. and the next month found him, after the battle of Sedgemoor, starving in a ditch, where he was hiding disguised as a peasant. After vainly suing to his uncle for life, he died on the scaffold.