Mazanderan, a province of Persia, 220 miles long by 60 miles broad, and occupying an area of about 10,000 square miles, between the Caspian Sea, the Elburz range, and the provinces of Astrabad and Gilan. The N. portion, near the Caspian shores, is level, being partly under cultivation for rice, sugar, and cotton, partly covered with jungle. Towards the S. the land rises rather suddenly to join the spurs of the Elburz, and the peak of Damavand attains a height of 18,600 feet. The climate is unhealthy, though the upper plateaus are fairly salubrious. The province is rich in minerals and petroleum, and, besides the products above-named, yields oranges, lemons, silk, and caviare for exportation, Baku being the nearest trading centre. It is administered by a governor, and the inhabitants, though reputed dull and rough, are by no means turbulent.