Matto Grosso, an inland province of Brazil bordering on Bolivia. Although it has an area of over 32,000 square miles, it is thinly inhabited, chiefly by Indians and negroes. The rivers Madeira (q.v.) and Paraguay rise here, and vegetation is abundant along the rivers, though sparse upon the plateaus. The chief industries are agricultural pursuits and cattle-rearing. Formerly the district produced gold and diamonds. Capital, Guyaba.