Masaniello, Tommaso Aniello (1623-47), a fisherman of Naples, became the chief instrument of a revolt against the tyranny of the Spanish viceroy, though the real moving spirit was a priest, who remained in the background. The immediate pretext for the revolt was a heavy tax levied upon fruit in 1647. The mob, under Masaniello's guidance, burnt the houses of some who were obnoxious to them and pillaged the city of arms, but not interfering with other property. He at first bore his honours meekly, and was able to dictate terms to the viceroy; but soon his mind gave way, and he committed so many extravagances that the populace wearied of him, and he was confined in a monastery, where he was assassinated. After his death a reaction set in, and he received a grand funeral.