Martineau, Harriet (1802-76), an English miscellaneous writer, was the daughter of a manufacturer at Norwich. Her careful Unitarian education stood her in good stead when in 1829 she found herself obliged to earn her own living. Very early she became almost completely deaf, but she had already written articles and short stories, and in 1830 gained prizes for some theological essays; but it was in 1832 when her Illustrations of Political Economy began to be published, that she achieved a reputation. In 1834 she paid a two years' visit to America, and on her return wrote Society in America and other descriptive works. She now contributed largely to Charles Knight's popular publications, and also wrote children's stories. From 1838 to 1844 illness interrupted her labours, but in the latter year she published a book against game laws. In 1846 she went to Egypt and Palestine and wrote a work on Eastern life. Her most important works were The History of the Thirty Years' Peace (1815-45), with an introductory volume; Letters on the Laws of Man's Nature and Development; and an epitome of Comte's Philosophic Positive. She was afterwards connected with the Daily News, and she left an Autobiography.