Marston Moor, the scene of one of the great battles of the Civil War, which took place July 2, 1644, is 7 miles N.W. of the city of York. The two armies were about equal in numbers, the Royalists being commanded by Prince Rupert, and the Parliamentarians by Fairfax, Manchester, and Leslie, Earl of Leven, who headed a Scots contingent. The king's cavalry at first carried all before them, but the day was retrieved by Cromwell's Ironsides. The Cavaliers lost 4,000 men, and never recovered their prestige.