Madison, James (1758?-1836), born in Virginia, studied for the bar, obtained a public office when about twenty-two years old, and was early elected to Congress. He soon became distinguished for eloquence, and contributed effectively to the drafting of the Constitution. He became Secretary of State under Jefferson, and in 1809 was elected President. He strongly resented the celebrated Orders in Council and the outrages inflicted on American shipping and seamen. Madison's policy and British obstinacy led to war with England in 1812, in which America had a fair and unexpected share of success, though her commerce suffered seriously, and in 1814 Great Britain was glad to make peace. Madison, at the end of his second term, in 1817, retired into private life.