Mackintosh, Sir James (1705-1832), jurist, publicist, historian, and philosopher, was born at Dorish, Inverness-shire, educated at Fortrose, Rossshire, and King's College, Aberdeen, and received a medical degree in 1787 after three years' study at Edinburgh. In 1792 he published Vindiciae Gallicae, an answer to Burke's Reflections on the French Revolution, and thereby became famous. About this time he entered Lincoln's Inn, and was soon called to the English bar. He defended Peltier when he stood his trial for libelling the First Consul of France (Bonaparte), and soon after was appointed Recorder of Bombay. From this post he retired in 1811 with a pension of £1,200 per annum. He entered Parliament in 1813 as member for Nairn county, and from 1818 sat as member for Knaresborough. He was made a Privy Councillor in 1828, and in 1830 a commissioner for Indian affairs in Earl Grey's Administration. His incomplete History of the British Revolution was published in 1834. He was a contributor to the Edinburgh Review, and wrote an important work on ethics.