Louis I., Le Debonnaiee, Emperor of the West Franks, reckoned by French writers as the first King of France, born in 778, was the son of Charlemagne, by whom in 806 he was granted a third of his empire, with the title of King of Aquitaine. On the death of his father, in 814, he became sole ruler, his brothers having died. He made many enemies by his attempts at firm government, and in 817 put out the eyes of his nephew Bernard, King of Italy, who had revolted. In 821 Louis's own sons by his first wife rose against him on account of the favour he showed to Charles, son of the second, and he was compelled to take a share only of the government, The Germans, however, supported him, and his authority was re-established, but only to be destroyed by a second revolt in 832, when Louis was treated with great cruelty by his eldest son, Lothair. The other brothers reinstated him, but he died in 840 at the outset of a fresh war with his sons and his grandson Pepin.