Note:  Do not rely on this information. It is very old.


Lombardy, an Italian province, forming a plain between the Alps and the Po, having Venice on the E. and Piedmont on the W. It belongs to the Po basin, is alluvial in nature, and is traversed by many streams and canals. Conquered by Rome in 222, it formed the province of "Gallia Cisalpina," it belonged in later times to a succession of powers till it fell into the hands of the Lombards, and was finally re-taken into the empire by Charlemagne. Still later it was divided into duchies, and city republics, which grew rich and were the homes of freedom. Internal quarrels, however, brought about their downfall. It then for a time belonged to the Dukes of Milan, but at the death of the last duke in 1447 it became a bone of contention between France and the Emperor, falling eventually to the latter. From Charles V. it passed to Spain, which held it till 1713. It then became Austrian, and, though diverted by Napoleon, was restored to Austria in 1815, remaining in that country's possession until made part, in 1859, of the new kingdom of Italy. It is now divided into 8 provinces.