Lemnos, in the north of the AEgean Sea, is an island belonging to Turkey, and is about equidistant (40 miles) from Athos and from the Dardanelles. It contains 150 square miles, and much of it is mountainous, though there are fertile valleys, which are cultivated by means of oxen. There are no forests, and wood has to be imported, but the mulberry and other fruit-trees are cultivated, and on the hill-sides thousands of sheep are pastured. The chief productions are corn, wine, and cattle. The archbishop resides at Kastro, which is on the west coast, has a good harbour, and is the seat of trade which is carried on by Greeks, of whom the inhabitants are mostly composed. Another town is Mudros in the south. A peculiarity of Lemnos is a kind of medicinal earth, which is gathered at certain times and in certain quantities with much solemnity. Lemnos was celebrated in Greek history and legend, and was sacred to Hephaestus. After the fall of the Byzantine Empire it belonged to the Turks, Venetians, and again it fell to Turkey in 1657.